Perhaps the largest and most pervasive issue in special education, as well as my own journey in education, is special education’s relationship to general education. History has shown that this has never been an easy clear cut relationship between the two. There has been a lot of giving and taking or maybe I should say pulling and pushing when it comes to educational policy, and the educational practices and services of education and special education by the human educators who deliver those services on both sides of the isle, like me.
Over the last 20+ years I have been on both sides of education. I have seen and felt what it was like to be a regular main stream educator dealing with special education policy, special education students and their specialized teachers. I have also been on the special education side trying to get regular education teachers to work more effectively with my special education students through modifying their instruction and materials and having a little more patience and empathy.
Furthermore, I have been a mainstream regular education teacher who taught regular education inclusion classes trying to figure out how to best work with some new special education teacher in my class and his or her special education students as well. And, in contrast, I have been a special education inclusion teacher intruding on the territory of some regular education teachers with my special education students and the modifications I thought these teachers should implement. I can tell you first-hand that none of this give and take between special education and regular education has been easy. Nor do I see this pushing and pulling becoming easy anytime soon.
So, what is special education? And what makes it so special and yet so complex and controversial sometimes? Well, special education, as its name suggests, is a specialized branch of education. It claims its lineage to such people as Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard (1775-1838), the physician who “tamed” the “wild boy of Aveyron,” and Anne Sullivan Macy (1866-1936), the teacher who “worked miracles” with Helen Keller.
Special educators teach students who have physical, cognitive, language, learning, sensory, and/or emotional abilities that deviate from those of the general population. Special educators provide instruction specifically tailored to meet individualized needs. These teachers basically make education more available and accessible to students who otherwise would have limited access to education due to whatever disability they are struggling with.
It’s not just the teachers though who play a role in the history of special education in this country. Physicians and clergy, including Itard- mentioned above, Edouard O. Seguin (1812-1880), Samuel Gridley Howe (1801-1876), and Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (1787-1851), wanted to ameliorate the neglectful, often abusive treatment of individuals with disabilities. Sadly, education in this country was, more often than not, very neglectful and abusive when dealing with students that are different somehow.
There is even a rich literature in our nation that describes the treatment provided to individuals with disabilities in the 1800s and early 1900s. Sadly, in these stories, as well as in the real world, the segment of our population with disabilities were often confined in jails and almshouses without decent food, clothing, personal hygiene, and exercise.
For an example of this different treatment in our literature one needs to look no further than Tiny Tim in Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol (1843). In addition, many times people with disabilities were often portrayed as villains, such as in the book Captain Hook in J.M. Barrie’s “Peter Pan” in 1911.
The prevailing view of the authors of this time period was that one should submit to misfortunes, both as a form of obedience to God’s will, and because these seeming misfortunes are ultimately intended for one’s own good. Progress for our people with disabilities was hard to come by at this time with this way of thinking permeating our society, literature and thinking.
So, what was society to do about these people of misfortune? Well, during much of the nineteenth century, and early in the twentieth, professionals believed individuals with disabilities were best treated in residential facilities in rural environments. An out of sight out of mind kind of thing, if you will…
However, by the end of the nineteenth century the size of these institutions had increased so dramatically that the goal of rehabilitation for people with disabilities just wasn’t working. Institutions became instruments for permanent segregation.
I have some experience with these segregation policies of education. Some of it is good and some of it is not so good. You see, I have been a self-contained teacher on and off throughout the years in multiple environments in self-contained classrooms in public high schools, middle schools and elementary schools. I have also taught in multiple special education behavioral self-contained schools that totally separated these troubled students with disabilities in managing their behavior from their mainstream peers by putting them in completely different buildings that were sometimes even in different towns from their homes, friends and peers.
Billing in facturacion vivaaerobus: Complete guide!
If you have a company or an independent project that requires you to travel periodically, you should know the importance of calculating these expenses so that they are verifiable and do not affect the finances of your business, then find out the details and the billing process at facturacion vivaaerobus .
Being able to verify expenses, in this case, invoicing plane tickets , gives you the possibility of deducting taxes, of course as long as the trips are for work or business reasons, so that it does not mean a cost for the capital of your company. extra expense
1 How to check in at Viva Aerobus?
2 Who can deduct?
3 What can I deduct when flying and how?
So we will indicate below who can deduct and what can be deducted when flying, together with the guide on how to check in at Viva Aerobus properly at each stage of the process.
How to check in at Viva Aerobus?
Now that we know the basics of the subject, it is time to take a look at the electronic invoicing process of Viva Aerobus.
As a tip, before starting the procedure, you need to check in the browser options if you have enabled the blocking of pop-up windows or pop-ups, if so, you must deactivate it, at least for now, because the system requires these Windows in certain parts.
The first step to check-in at Viva Aerobus is to enter the airline’s website , dedicated exclusively to this purpose.
There you must enter some information: name, RFC, confirmation key, email to which the invoices are to be sent, confirm email, use of CFDI (Digital Fiscal Receipt over the Internet), and if the invoice is needed abroad .
In the event that an invoice is needed for a foreigner, the country of residence and the TAX ID must be indicated, with which the RFC will be generated to fill in the required field. After having filled out that form, click on the captcha and then continue.
The next part of the process is that the system verifies the payments to be invoiced, of which you can see the detailed details, if you wish. Then, you must choose the payment, clicking to put a tick, and then click on “billing”.
Immediately afterwards, a window will appear asking if you want to continue with the process, to confirm the selection of that option, where you have to click on “accept”. Payments already billed will appear in the list, but the options to bill again will be disabled.
If the electronic invoicing was successful, a window will appear indicating that the process was successful, showing that the document has been sent to the previously given email; You must click “ok” to close, and then the updated list will appear, with the new option to download invoices.
If you need to bill plane tickets for another reservation, you must click on “search for another password” and the system will display the initial page again.
Done, as you can see, the billing process at Viva Aerobus is very easy, and although these procedures may seem cumbersome at first, it can be something as simple as checking in to obtain your boarding pass.
So keep traveling with Viva Aerobus, invoice your purchases without complications and expand your business and professional activity by flying to the main national and international destinations.
Who can deduct?
Natural persons who have business activities and those who are providers of professional services (that is, those who work for fees), can deduct taxes due to their activity.
To be part of the regime for natural persons with business activity, the requirements are that invoices be issued, which must have the SAT stamp for tax accreditation and deductions; keep the RFC updated, and record what is spent, what is invested and what is entered.
On the other hand, those who provide professional services are people who work independently, they must have their RFC updated; issue invoices with the SAT seal; if they have some employees, withhold ISR from salaries, and have proof of what was withheld and paid to those employees.
What can I deduct when flying and how?
The elements that can be deducted from a work or business trip are: transportation, lodging, use of a vehicle, and food. It is also important to know the deductible amounts, so as not to exceed the limit as applicable in each case.
The way in which you can deduct expenses is that they are all made either by transfer or by payment with a debit or credit card; have proof of expenses, and have all the proofs that serve to verify that the first ones coincide with the place and time of the trip.
With these aspects it will be easy to issue and download invoices , facilitating the deduction process for your company or business.
NEURO-PHARMACOGNOSIA : IS IT NATURE’S ANSWER FOR NEUROPATHY?
Neuropathy literally means diseased nerves. There are a number of different reasons why people develop neuropathy. Neuropathy is quite commonly associated with diabetes, vitamin deficiencies, nerve inflammation, and toxins that poison the nerves. We have discussed many of the conditions that cause nerve disease in patients in other articles. Patients suffering from the signs and symptoms of neuropathy experience pain, burning, numbness, and other strange sensations known as paresthesias, which usually start in the feet and spread to the rest of the body. Regardless of the cause of the neuropathy, the pain and other symptoms can be debilitating and incapacitating.
The nervous system in higher animals like humans is a highly complex collection of specialized cells known as neurons. Neurons have several unique features, including a wire-like extension known as an axon. The axon works much like an electrical wire, carrying coded electrical signals known as nerve impulses throughout the body. Just like a copper wire, the nerve axon has an insulation known as myelin. Unlike a copper wire, a nerve cell and its wire-like axon are living tissue. The neuron contains all of the cellular machinery necessary to produce energy, sustain itself, and generate energy to support its function of sending and receiving electrical signals. Blüten kaufen Each neuron is an electrochemical marvel and essentially a living battery. This amazing communication network occurs at the microscopic level and consumes incredible amounts of energy to function properly.
The myelin insulation that surrounds the nerve axon is also a living tissue, and the nerve cell and its myelin cell partners are closely arranged to sustain and support each other.
The nervous system typically does a remarkable job of sending and receiving information from different parts of the body, acting both as a sensory system to monitor what’s going on in the body and as an effector system, driving necessary changes in the body based on the input from the sensors.
Because of its complexity, the nervous system and its supporting myelin cells are vulnerable to the slightest perturbation of metabolism. The axons are like a microscopic spider web, yet they travel great distances in the body. They can be very easily dysregulated by trauma or compression.
Think of the nervous system as a living, sensitive, and vulnerable communications network that requires inordinate amounts of energy to function and maintain properly. It’s no wonder the nervous system is susceptible to injury, disease, metabolic abnormalities, immune problems, and many other ailments that can make it ill and fail.
Peripheral nervous system dysfunction is common, and when this occurs, people develop the cardinal symptoms of polyneuropathy.
Despite the fact that polyneuropathy is one of the most common peripheral nervous system disorders, there are few FDA-approved drugs to treat it. Many patients who try traditional prescription medications to relieve their neuropathy symptoms are disappointed with the results.
Too often, newer drugs in the research pipeline appear promising, but fail because of undesirable side effects. Research and data from failed drug development experiments can sometimes be applied to herbal medicine, where natural substances work in ways similar to artificial chemicals, but with less severe side effects. The scientific study of natural substances that can mimic man-made drugs is called pharmacognosy . When this knowledge is applied to the nervous system, we call it neuropharmacognosy . This can be translated as the theory of the pharmacology of natural substances that can influence the functioning of the nervous system. There are a number of natural substances that can mimic the pharmacology of drugs used to treat neuropathy. We’ve discussed them in other articles, but we’ll go through them together here.
Based on experimental data on nerve function and disease, a number of broad classes of chemicals have theoretical utility in alleviating symptoms of neuropathy.
When nerves get sick, it appears that increasing a chemical known as GABA can calm irritated and inflamed nerves and provide relief for people struggling with the symptoms of neuropathy. You can think of GABA as a brake pedal, slowing down the symptoms of neuropathy. There is research to suggest that the herbs valerian root and lemon balm may increase GABA, which applies the body’s natural brakes on nerve pain. Valerian root can block an enzyme known as GABA-T, which breaks down and neutralizes GABA in the nervous system. By blocking the breakdown of GABA, valerian root can prolong the braking effect of GABA on the nerve and slow down the symptoms of neuropathy. Lemon balm appears to enhance the effects of GABA in a slightly different way. Rather than blocking the breakdown of GABA, lemon balm can stimulate an enzyme called GAD, which is responsible for building GABA. The braking effect of GABA on the diseased nerve is thus supported by the increased production of this neurotransmitter
If GABA acts like the body’s brakes on an out-of-control nervous system, glutamate is the nerve’s accelerator. Studies suggest that injured nerves become hypersensitive because glutamate is released after the nervous system is irritated. This has the effect of sensitizing the nerve and contributing to the signs and symptoms of neuropathy. There are two potentially important herbs that can block the effects of glutamate on the nervous system in neuropathy. The first is theanine , a protein derived from green tea. Theanine is believed to act as a glutamate analogue. This means that theanine is processed by the body like glutamate, but lacks the nerve-stimulating effects of glutamate. Think of theanine as an empty sphere that has the net effect of reducing the effects of glutamate. The other herb that can reduce the excitatory effects of glutamate is magnolia bark. Magnolia bark is believed to bind to and block a specific glutamate receptor. This suggests that magnolia bark is a specific antagonist of glutamate and may be a more specific way to take your foot off the accelerator in nerves damaged by neuropathy.
Consistent with our auto-analogy, if GABA is the nerve brake in neuropathy and glutamate acts like the gas pedal, a third chemical known as glycine could be considered the transmission. Glycine slows down the nervous system. Remember to put the nerve in low gear. Glycine downshifts the nerve directly in neuropathy, thus slowing and inhibiting the painful transmission of nerve signals, but it can also compete indirectly with glutamate. The mechanism by which glycine might provide relief to patients suffering from neuropathy is a little less straightforward. If a patient took a large dose of glycine, the nerves would slow down. However, this effect would not last long, since glycine is transported away from the nerve in the nervous system by a so-called glycine transporter. The glycine transporter has the net effect of getting rid of glycine, which effectively gets the nervous system back into high gear. This glycine transporter system is so effective that it makes glycine impractical as a treatment for neuropathy. Because of the glycine transporter, the nerve simply cannot keep enough glycine in the nerve to meaningfully slow down the function of a hypersensitive nerve. However, there are substances that can inhibit the glycine transporter , and this appears to be a promising avenue to improve the suppression of nerve hyperexcitability as seen in neuropathy. The herb prickly ash bark appears to be a major glycine transporter inhibitor. Prickly Ash has long been used to relieve pain. Likewise, the naturally occurring compound sarcosine is a known inhibitor of the glycine transporter. Both of these naturally occurring substances appear to be candidates for relieving the signs and symptoms of neuropathy.
Another avenue that can be used to alleviate neuropathy is through the endogenous cannabinoid receptor system. This system is activated by marijuana and is thought to suppress pain at the higher levels of the nervous system. The receptors of the endogenous cannabinoid system can be activated by certain breakdown products of fatty acids in the nervous system for pain relief without inducing the “high” and side effects associated with marijuana drug use . Substances that block the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase, or FAAH, appear to activate the endogenous cannabinoid system and are currently being studied for the treatment of neuropathic pain. There appear to be naturally occurring FAAH inhibitors in red clover and the herb MACA. This suggests that through their potential to modulate the activity of the enzyme FAAH, these herbs may be able to activate the endogenous cannabinoid system and relieve neuropathic pain.
Finally, with particular reference to the neuropathy associated with diabetes, the protein kinase – C or PKC enzyme and its relationship to T-type calcium channels may be therapeutic targets. It appears that elevated blood sugar unregulates PKC in diabetic nerves. PKC appears to drive specific calcium channels in diabetic nerves known as T-type calcium channels. These changes are thought to drive hypersensitivity and excitability, at least in nerves affected by diabetic neuropathy.
chelidonium Majus is an herbal remedy that can modulate PKC. The alkaloid chelerythrine found in this herb is a potent protein kinase C antagonist. This suggests a potential benefit of this herb in polyneuropathy . While it is generally safe, some reports of liver toxicity have been linked to chelidonium Majus appear in the medical literature.
Picrorhiza Kurroa is an herb that contains phytochemicals apocynin . At least one study suggests that apocynin prevents or significantly reduces the upregulation of Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels. This suggests that Picrorhiza Kurroa may be able to downregulate the overexpression of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels, which are thought to contribute to nerve hyperexcitability seen in diabetic neuropathy.
A final note and warning about using internet information to treat a medical problem. Do not do it! The use of this article is intended solely for patients to discuss the information contained with their licensed healthcare provider. While herbal treatments are generally safe, they can have unwanted or unpredictable side effects. Only a licensed physician who is familiar with your specific medical condition can diagnose you with certainty and advise you on the treatment of your particular condition. Always consult and inform your doctor before adding or changing your treatment regimen.
dr Kukurin is a board certified chiropractic neurologist with a certification in acupuncture. He has over 25 years of experience treating neurological disorders using alternative medicine techniques. He has presented the results of his methods at conferences in Johns Hopkins. His patients’ findings have been published in journals listed in the National Library of Medicine. dr Kukurin has postgraduate medical training from Harvard Medical School, Johns Hopkins, the Mayo Clinic and the Russian People’s Friendship Medical School. dr Kukurin completed a nine-month postgraduate course in Advanced Practice at the National University of Health Sciences. The course covered the pharmacology of commonly prescribed drugs, pharmacognosy, which is the study of the pharmacology of natural substances, herbal medicine and toxicology. For more information about the conditions he treats, these treatments , and the results his patients have achieved, visit his website.
How to Save Money Using a Real Estate Agent
In tough economic times, most people seek ways to cut costs and hire real estate agents. The right agent can save you money on real estate transactions by negotiating on your behalf, saving you up to 3% on the final home price. Buying agents typically earn $3,000 per $100,000. You could save 3% on your purchase price by using something other than a buyer agent.
Partnering With a Realtor Can Save You Money
If you can’t do everything yourself, working with the best real estate agents can save you thousands of dollars. Agents have the knowledge they need to negotiate the best deals and save customers time and frustration. They spend time educating themselves about your preferences and needs and will narrow their search based on that. Hiring a real estate agent can take the stress out of a stressful home search.
One of the reasons why you should hire a flat-rate real estate agent is that it saves you money. Realtors can save at least 3% on fees when selling a property. Agents also save money on agent splits and taxes. This means you can invest your extra income into your business. Not only will you save money, but you will also gain valuable information about real estate and investments.
Commissions Paid to Agents
When hiring a real estate agent, you should ask about transaction fees. The common commission split is 60/40, but it can range from 50/50 to 90/10. In general, experienced agents receive higher commission percentages than less experienced agents. However, it’s worth comparing the commission rates to what you can expect from a real estate agent. Before you can work as a real estate agent, you must pay a minimum fee.
These costs can vary by state and market, so research before you start. Apart from the commission, you can also negotiate a lower price with the agency. It may seem unprofessional, but if your broker undercharges you, you shouldn’t be ashamed to ask for a lower commission. The agent refuses to negotiate with you. Even if he does, the worst-case scenario is he says no. Another option is for the agent to set only the asking price, facilitate communication with the buyer, create the contract, and select the trading arrangement to complete the process. You can even negotiate a fee discount if you’re on a tight budget.
Choosing the right real estate agent is critical to a successful transaction. Not only do you need to find someone with experience, but you also need to be available during working hours, after hours, and on weekends. While it may be tempting to hire a new agent, it’s important to consider the time it takes to select the right agent for your specific needs. Whether you’re buying a home or a luxury property, the right agent can make all the difference.
Once you’ve narrowed down your list of realtors, you can interview them to find out if they’re a good fit for you. Be sure to interview at least three realtors to find out what they are like. Trust your instincts, and don’t go with someone you meet for the first time. Interviewing potential realtors can take a long time, but it’s worth it if you’re happy with the outcome.
Realtors Have Two Extremes for Him
What’s great and what’s not? Most agents are somewhere in between, but with a little research, you can avoid bad ones. Use online resources such as Falaya, Zillow, Trulia, and Yelp to screen potential professionals before hiring them. These resources will help you weed out the bad and hire a professional with a solid reputation. Ultimately, you’ll reach your real estate goals more effectively than an unqualified agent.
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